Wednesday, November 13, 2019

HIV and Aids :: Medical Health Medicine Essays

HIV and Aids In Junior High, when we were in sex education class, we were told about AIDS and HIV. We learned that being HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) positive eventually led to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), which eventually led to death. We were taught this and never really doubted it. The AIDS pandemic is global and an estimated 40 million people are infected. None of them have been cured. The amount of funding for AIDS research is not small. A plentiful amount of drugs are available to patients diagnosed with AIDS or HIV. Some AIDS patients take "cocktails" of pills, which often lead to serious physical side effects. Some "cocktails" can mean ingesting 25 pills a day. There has been much talk about finding an AIDS Vaccine, but there have been no definite results as of yet. She created a stir in the media when she appeared on ABC News 20/20(1). Her person She has been called an unfit mother, a heretic, and has been compared to those who believe the Holocaust never happened. The reason for such a stir is because she is HIV positive, doesn"t take any medications whatsoever, questions whether HIV causes AIDS, has published a book called What if Everything You Thought You Knew About AIDS Was Wrong?, has unprotected sex with her husband, has an untested 3 year old son who she breast-fed at birth (the virus can be transmitted in utero, during birth, or through breast feeding), and is pregnant with her second child. Her name is Christine Maggiore and she as well as other dissidents have aroused both anger and support from AIDS and HIV communities. The difference between being HIV positive and having AIDS is that having AIDS means that a person must be HIV positive and either have a T-cell count below 200 or have one of the CDC"s (Center for Disease Control) 28 opportunistic infections. Christine Maggiore started questioning the connection between HIV and AIDS and the HIV and AIDS testing process when certain things she was told about AIDS and HIV did not add up with her situation. She speaks about how she "started really thinking about what AIDS doctors and educators told me rather than just accepting everything as true and correct." Doctors had told her that from her T cell count, she had a recent new infection.

marketing case Essays -- essays research papers

Introduction:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Pfizer Inc. is a research-based diversified health care company with operations around the globe. Pfizer Inc. has three main business groups. They include the Consumer Health Care Group, U.S. Pharmaceuticals Group, and the Pfizer Animal Health Products Segment. For purposes of this case, we will discuss the Animal Health Products Group, where in 1998, accounted for twelve percent of the company’s revenues. Industry Background: The process for making beef begins with the ranchers breeding and raising cattle, in order to sell them to feedlots. The ranchers’ goals are to minimize death of the cattle, to breed low birth weight calves, to produce grade A choice beef, and lastly to produce calves that gain weight quickly. By the time the feedlots purchase the cattle, the more the cattle weights, the better. The next step in the process after the feedlots purchase the cattle is for the feedlots to sell the beef to the meatpackers. There are four main meatpacker companies that account for eighty percent of the entire industry. The meatpackers act as a middleman between the producer and the consumer. Since the majority of this industry is controlled by a few companies, this creates a problem because they act similar to a monopoly. Due to this monopolistic view, there is no free-flow of information throughout the supply chain and beef prices tend to be higher than they should. After the meatpackers have packe d the beef, they sell it to retail stores, which in turn sell the meat to us, the consumer. Industry Trends: There are a variety of trends that directly influence the beef industry. To begin, changes in consumer lifestyles include less time for home-cooked meals and society’s increased pressure for time; thereby, having a big impact on the decline of consumption of beef. In addition, consumers have increased dietary considerations for health and nutritional issues that lead them to consume alternative meat products like pork and poultry. Furthermore, the marketing strategies of the pork and poultry industry have done a better job advertising than the beef industry. Also, the pork and poultry industry have recently produced more ready-to-eat and branded products. Even with all of this new increased pressure on the beef industry by the pork and poultry industries, retail prices for beef have still remained high, yet ano... ...less today than ever before, beef will always exist, therefore, Pfizer products will be needed. An added reason for them to continue with their cattle/calve health products is due to the fact that Pfizer has already invested heavily in this industry and makes over sixty health products for cattle. Additionally, we also recommend that Pfizer maintain their strong market share by continuing to sponsor seminars, publish educational material, offer technical support and organize management programs for the health care of cattle. Conclusion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  To conclude, the beef industry is currently experiencing a decline in demand, thereby directly affecting products sold to ranchers made by Pfizer’s Animal Health Group. This decline can be attributed to a variety of factors outside of Pfizer’s control, including social, economical and governmental issues regarding beef. Since Pfizer is limited in what they can do to increase beef sales, our proposal is for Pfizer to enter into making health products for poultry, given that this industry seems to be on the rise. However, at the same time, Pfizer should continue to be active in the beef industry to keep them at the top.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Midterm Essay Essay

Briefly identify and explain the key differences and similarities regarding the UCR, NIBRS, and NCVS programs. The Uniformed Crime Reporting (UCR) Program displays crime data for the United States, as well as for states, cities, counties and colleges. This allows for a comparison among neighboring jurisdictions and among those with similar populations and other common characteristics. The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) collects information on the frequency and of crimes such as rape, sexual assault, aggravated and simple assault, household burglary, theft, and motor vehicle theft. Both systems report different types of information and different details. The UCR program displays statistics for law enforcement administration, operation, and management. The UCR program utilizes what is called the hierarchy rule. If more than one crime was committed by the same person and the time separating the crimes was minor, then the crime highest in the hierarchy is the only crime reported. This seems like a very inaccurate method of recording data, one would assume that all records of offenses were taken into consideration for reporting purposes. The NCVS program collects information on crimes by individuals and households while also providing information on victims such as age, sex, race, marital status. The difference in the two programs is that each serves a different purpose in reporting. The UCR reports information for law enforcement, operations and management. The NCVS provides information about each crime, its victims and the offenders. Summarize the evolution of the criminal justice system in America. Identify and discuss at least three (3) key U.S Supreme Court cases that have had a significant impact on the issue of individual rights versus public order, with respect to arrest, search, and seizure. In modern day America, the public’s view on the typical criminal has shifted from seeing him or her as a victim of social and personal unfortunate circumstances to seeing him  or her as a dangerous predator who takes advantage of the rights and privileges of citizens (Schmalleger, 2014). An example of a Supreme Court case that had an impact on the issue of individual rights versus public order is McCullen v. Coakley. Individuals claimed that a â€Å"buffer zone† around an abortion clinic infringed upon their First Amendment rights to free speech by communication with patients less effective (Takeway). This relates to the possibility of an arrest if the protestors are blocking the entrance to an abortion clinic or physically harassing a patient. In 1995, the Supreme Court ruled that officers must knock and announce their identity before entering a dwelling even if they hold a search warrant (Schmalleger, 2014). In January 2012, the Supreme Court ruled that the FBI needed a warrant to attach a GPS device to s suspected drug dealer’s car. This ties into the search and seizure topics and preserves the individual rights of the suspected drug dealer. After all, the individual is just suspected of being a dealer, there is no hard evidence. In general, outline the police mission, operational strategies, styles and the legal and ethical aspects of policing today. The police officer mission consists of five components, enforcing the law, apprehending offenders, preventing crime, preserving the peace, and providing the community with needed enforcement related services. Law enforcement has a chain of command just like the military with three policing styles that vary by department and region. The watchman style attempts to achieve â€Å"order maintenance†. The legalistic style attempts to enforce the letter of the law. The service style attempts to meet the needs of the community and serve its members. In general, police officers are mandated to stay within the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Amendments. All law enforcement officials regardless of status or rank should be held accountable for their actions however, this is not always the case. There are three methods that guide American policing. Strategic policing retains the goal of professional crime fighting but enlarges the target to include serial offenders, gangs and criminal associations. It makes use of technology, intelligence operations and undercover stings (Schmalleger, 2014). Problem solving policing assumes that crimes are caused by social conditions within the community and that they can be controlled by addressing social problems (Schmalleger, 2014).  Lastly, community policing supports the use of partnerships and problem solving techniques to address the issues that cause crime. (Schmalleger, 2014). Ethical issues that plague law enforcement vary. Racially biased policing in which police officers are viewed as biased for example, taking that a predominately African American neighborhood is full of criminals. The use of excessive and deadly force is another issue in which police officers either use too much force in the apprehension of a suspect or cause death or great bodily harm (Schmalleger, 2014). What is the dual-court system? Identify and explain the three levels of characteristic of the federal judiciary. The dual court system is the result of general agreement among the founding fathers about the need for individual states to retain significant legislative authority and judicial autonomy separate from federal control (Schmalleger, 2014). The three levels of characteristics of the federal judiciary are the district courts, the courts of appeal and the Supreme Court. The district courts are composed of 94 judicial districts . Federal district courts have jurisdiction over all cases involved alleged violations of federal statutes. The 94 judicial districts are organized into 12 regional circuits each with a court of appeals. The court of appeals hears appeals from district courts within its circuit (Schmalleger, 2014). These courts are also known as circuit courts. The U.S. Supreme Court is the top federal court system in the U.S. It is comprised of nine justices with eight being associates and the ninth being the chief justice (Schmalleger, 2014). The Supreme Courts’ decisions affect the United States by deciding what laws and lower court decisions are in line with the Constitution. Identify and describe the various pre-trial stages of criminal trial. There are various pre-trial stages in a criminal trial. It begins with an arrest when the person is taken into custody. The first appearance is when the defendant appears before a judge. The legality of his or her arrest is contemplated and the defendant is told what he or she is being charged with. The accused will either be kept incarcerated without bail or with bail, the latter being money paid by the arrested in exchange for release. The next stage is the pretrial release in which the accused person is released from custody before or during prosecution. However, there is a condition; the  accused person is required to appear in court when told to do so. Plea bargains are also negotiated. The defendant can agree to plea guilty to a lesser charge than the one he or she is being accused with. A lesser punishment may be in order if they are being accused with multiple offenses. A plea bargain is a debate or negotiation between the defense counsel, defendant and the prosecution. Normally criminal cases end at this stage in order to reduce time and money. References Schmalleger, F. (2014). Criminal Justice: a brief introduction, (10th ed) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Takeaways From Supreme Court Rulings On Buffer Zones, Recess Picks. (2014). National Public Radio.

For those not familiar with this storyline Essay

For those not familiar with this storyline, Romeo + Juliet is just your average boy-meets-girl, boy-and-girl-fall-hopelessly-in-love, boy-kills-girls-cousin, girl-feigns-death, boy-and-girl-commit-suicide plot. Not one to watch with a box of chocolates and a boyfriend bonfire, but a box of tissues may well be needed. Director Baz Lehrmann chooses to set this epic in Mexico, a perfect modern backdrop for the violent gangland culture Shakespeare’s script conveys in a modern context. The two families-the Capulets and the Montegues- are beautifully contrasted; the lighthearted Montegues in open Hawaiian shirts, against the tight black clad Capulet boys sporting many gold accessories. These two groups of arch nemeses are, however, united by their mutual habit of openly wearing guns with such flair and style they could easily pass as a fashion accessory, rather than an accessory to murder. In the prologue the role traditionally played by the chorus is adopted by a real life U. S anchorwoman. The prologue is so turned into a news bulletin. You are literally drawn in to the film as the shot slowly zooms in on the television showing the newsreader, before the shot hurtles down a metropolitan street, dragging the audience, with trailing stomachs, behind it. Lehrmann captivates his audience from the outset with a visually stunning repeat of his prologue, utilising imagery from the whole film and conveying the entire storyline in under a minute. Contrary to what you may think, this in fact draws the viewer into the film. The imagery used in the prologue directly links to and supports the words in the scripted opening, and translates them into the modern context. â€Å"Two houses, both alike in dignity† is represented by two giant skyscrapers either side of a road, one bearing a huge sign saying Capulet, the other Montague. As Romeo, Dicaprio shows the full depth of his acting ability. From lovelorn-â€Å"Did my heart love ’til now? † to murderous â€Å"Either thou or I or both must go with him† and back down again through all the levels of shock, anxiety, and of course suicidal. Clare Danes gives a beautiful portrayal of young innocent Juliet. Her facial expressions are convincing and manage to wordlessly express every feeling perfectly. Her lines are also delivered with huge compassion and emotion. Danes along with Dicaprio shows a huge variety in her performance, keeping a wide audience interested in a script labelled by many as â€Å"boring†. This is not the first time modern directors have messed around with the â€Å"star cross’d lovers†. Most notably Bernstein’s all singing all dancing West Side Story, but also China Girls and-more loosely- Romeo Must Die. However, this is the first modern adaptation to stick with Shakespeare’s script. Lehrmann has obviously had to make cuts in the text for the sake of the length of the film, but the dialogue he leaves in is fantastically effective. This spunked up version a timeless classic engrosses a viewer of any age from the outset, and keeps its grip almost complete through to hugely moving finale. Even staunch traditionalists must see that dragging this dusty play kicking and screaming in to a twentieth century riddled with guns, drugs, and rock n roll has revived it in a way no amount of Lawrence Olivier ever could.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Civil Action essays

Civil Action essays The legal system is an essential element in the successful operation of this country. It is a system that is utilized every day, by every type of person, from the average blue-collar worker to the average Wall Street broker. There is a multitude of ways that the legal system is put to use. One such way is the class action lawsuit. A Civil Action, by Jonathan Harr, uses the account of a single case, Anne Anderson, et al., v. W.R. Grace The purpose of class action lawsuits is to give the common man the ability to take on the largest corporate or private entities, who can afford the very best legal services, and have a chance of redressing the wrong done by these entities (Clark, sec. 1). Without class action lawsuits, ordinary citizens acting individually would not have the means to challenge corporate and governmental wrongdoers. A Civil Action provides an in depth account of the life of one class action suit. It explores the role of the lawyer in litigating situations, focusing on the critical factor of proving causality. It brings to light numerous pitfalls encountered by both the prosecution and defense. In addition to exposing the potential pitfalls that can occur in a class action lawsuit, A Civil Action also touches on the motivation behind these cases. A definite motivation must exist for all persons involved in a class action lawsuit, since the uncertainty, stress, and pitfalls that accompany this form of civil action are tremendous. A Civil Action did not attempt to sugarcoat the process of trying a case such as the Woburn case. The complication were numerous and often hard to overcome. For the plaintiffs, the biggest hurdle faced was proving causality. Nearly all other obstacles Schlichtmann and his staff encountered were directly related to the attempt to prove causality. In a civil case, as...

German Writers Every German Learner Should Know

German Writers Every German Learner Should Know What is it that your German teacher always says? If you can’t speak, then read, read and read! Reading will help you tremendously in improving your language skills. And once you are able to read some of the great writers of German literature, you will understand German thought and culture more in depth. In my opinion, reading a translated work never equals the original in the language it was written in. Here are a few German writers that have been translated in numerous languages and that have influenced people all over the world. Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (1759-1805) Schiller was one of the most influential German poets of the Sturm und Drang era. He ranks high up in German people’s eyes, alongside with Goethe. There’s even a monument depicting them side by side in Weimar. Schiller was successful in his writing from his very first publication on - Die Ruber (The Robbers) was a play written while he was at a military academy and quickly became renowed thoughout Europe. Initially Schiller had first studied to become a pastor, then became a regimental doctor for a short period, before finally devoting himself to writing and teaching as a professor of history and philosophy at the University of Jena. Later moving to Weimar, he founded with Goethe Das Weimar Theater, a leading theatre company at the time. Schiller became part of a German Enlightment period, die Weimarer Klassik (the Weimar Classism), later on in his life, of which also famous writers such as Goethe, Herder and Wielandt were a part. They wrote and philosiphized about aesthetics and ethics, Schiller having penned an influential work entitled ÃÅ"ber die sthetische Erziehung des Menschen On the Aesthetic Education of Man. Beethoven famously set Schillers poem Ode to Joy in his ninth symphony.   Gnther Grass (1927) Gunter Grass is one of Germany’s most notable writers currently living, whose work has garnered him a Nobel Prize of Literature. His most renowned work is his Danzig Trilogy Die Blechtrommel (The Tindrum), Katz und Maus (Cat and Mouse), Hundejahre (Dog Years), as well as his most recent one Im Krebsgang (Crabwalk). Born in the Free City of Danzig Grass has worn many hats: he’s been also a sculptor, graphic artist and illustrator. Further, throughout his life, Grass has always been outspoken about European political affairs, receiving the2012 European of the Year award from the European Movement Denmark . In 2006 Grass has received much attention from the media involving his participation in the Waffen SS as a teenager. He has also recently voiced his disapproval of facebook and other social media, stating that â€Å"anybody who has 500 friends, has no friends.† Wilhelm Busch (1832-1908) Wilhelm Busch is known as a pioneer of the comic strip, due to his caricature drawings that accompanied his verse. Among his most popular works are Max and Moritz, a children’s classic that recount the mischievous pranks of the aforesaid boys, a ballad that is often read and dramatized in German schools.Most of Busch’s works are a satirical spin on practically everything in society! His works were often a parody of double standards. He poked fun at the ignorance of the poor, the snobbery of the rich, and in particular, the pomposity of clergymen. Busch was anti-Catholic and some of his works greatly reflected this . Scenes such as in Die fromme Helene, where it is hinted that the married Helene had an affair with a clergy man or the scene in Der Heilige Antonius von Padua where the catholic Saint Antonius is being seduced by the devil clad in ballet attire made these works by Busch both popular and offensive. Due to such and similar scenes, the book Der Heilige Antonius von Padua was banned from Austria until 1902. Heinrich Heine (1797-1856) Heinrich Heine was one of the most influential German poets in the 19th century that German authorities tried to suppress because of his radical political views. He is also known for his lyrical prose which was set to music of classical greats such as Schumann, Schubert and Mendelssohn in the form of Lieder form. Heinrich Heine, a jew by birth, was born in Dà ¼sseldorf, Germany and was known as Harry until he converted to Christianity when he was in his twenties. In his work, Heine often ridiculed sappy romanticism and over exuberant portrayals of nature. Though Heine loved his German roots, he often critiqued Germanys contrasting sense of nationalism.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

The Dobzhansky-Muller Model

The Dobzhansky-Muller Model The Dobzhansky-Muller Model is a scientific explanation of why natural selection influences speciation in such a way that when hybridization occurs between species, the resulting offspring is genetically incompatible with other members of its species of origin. This occurs because there are several ways that speciation occurs in the natural world, one of which is that a common ancestor can break off into many lineages due to reproductive isolations of certain populations or parts of populations of that species. In this scenario, the genetic makeup of those lineages changes over time through mutations and natural selection choosing the most favorable adaptations for survival. Once the species have diverged, many times they are no longer compatible and can no longer sexually reproduce with each other. The natural world has both prezygotic and postzygotic isolation mechanisms that keep species from interbreeding and producing hybrids, and the Dobzhansky-Muller Model helps to explain how this occurs through the exchange of unique, new alleles and chromosomal  mutations. A New Explanation for Alleles Theodosius Dobzhansky and Hermann Joseph Muller created a model to explain how new alleles arise and are passed down in the newly formed species. Theoretically, an individual that would have a mutation at the chromosomal level would not be able to reproduce with any other individual. The Dobzhansky-Muller Model attempts to theorize how a brand new lineage can arise if there is only one individual with that mutation; in their model, a new allele arises and becomes fixed at one point. In the other now diverged lineage, a different allele arises at a different point on the gene. The two diverged species are now incompatible with each other because they have two alleles that have never been together in the same population. This changes the proteins that are produced during transcription and translation, which could make the hybrid offspring sexually incompatible; however, each lineage can still hypothetically reproduce with the ancestral population, but if these new mutations in the lineages are advantageous, eventually they will become permanent alleles in each population- when this occurs, the ancestral population has successfully split into two new species. Further Explanation of Hybridization The Dobzhansky-Muller Model is also able to explain how this may happen at a large level with whole chromosomes. It is possible that over time during evolution, two smaller chromosomes may undergo centric fusion and become one large chromosome. If this happens, the new lineage with the larger chromosomes is no longer compatible with the other lineage and hybrids cannot happen. What this essentially means is that if two identical yet isolated populations start with a genotype of AABB, but the first group evolves to aaBB and the second to AAbb, meaning that if they crossbreed to form a hybrid, the combination of a and b or A and B occurs for the first time in the populations history, making this hybridized offspring unviable with its ancestors. The Dobzhansky-Muller Model states that incompatibility, then, is most likely caused by whats known as alternative fixation of two or more populations instead of just one and that the hybridization process yields a co-occurrence of alleles in the same individual that is genetically unique and incompatible with others of the same species.